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Biology is the science of living organisms, subdivided into Zoology (the science of the
Animal Kingdom) and Botany (the science of the Plant Kingdom)
Montessori observed that children pass through the following stages in their understanding
of the natural environment.

1. Observation and Discovery
Biology is first introduced to the child through observation of the environment and
discovery of the interdependence of living organisms. In a Montessori classroom, the
Nature Table is introduced. Children should have access to a School Garden and be
taken for Nature Walks and excursions. Through these exposures, children will begin to
recognise the trees, flowers, insects and animals around them.

2. Care and responsibility
Children are shown through EPL, how to care for the plants and pets. They will soon
learn that their survival depends on humans caring for them.

3. Processes and Predictions
Children soon understand the processes and the sequences involved in the natural world.
They learn what to expect and how to make predictions. Access to this knowledge is
through the Sensorial materials, Puzzles, Pairing cards and Classification Materials.

4. Interdependence
They learn about the interdependence of living things through Projects and Charts,
which they are exposed to ideas such as the ‘Food Chain’ and the ‘Pyramid of Energy’.

5. Cultivation and Control
At this final stage, the children realise that humans have the power to cultivate and
control the environment, changing it to meet their own needs and those of the
community. Now, the directress should provide activities that help the children to
understand the importance of saving and looking after Natural Habitats, and also
develop a general environmental awareness.